Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays / Анатомия критики: четыре эссе Год: Автор: Frye Northrop / Фрай Нортроп Издательство: Princeton University Press ISBN: ; Язык: Английский Формат: PDF/DjVu Качество: Отсканированные страницы + слой распознанного текста Интерактивное оглавление: Да Количество страниц: Релиз группы Описание: Из энциклопедии «Западное литературоведение XX века»: ФРАЙ Нортроп Герман (FRYE Northrop Herman) (VII. The publication of Northrop Frye's Notebooks troubled some of his old admirers, myself included. O n e unfortunate passage gave us Frye's affirmation that he alone, of all modern critics, possessed genius. I think of Kenneth Burke and of William Empson; were they less gifted than Frye? Or were George Wilson Knight or Ernst Robert Curtius less original and creative than the Canadian master? What is here offered is pure critical theory, and the omission of all specific criticism, even, in three of the four essays, of quotation, is deliberate. The present book seems to me, so far as I can judge at present, to need a com plementary volume concerned with practical criticism, a sort of morphology of literary symbolism. Перейти к навигации Перейти к поиску. Нортроп Фрай (англ. Herman Northrop Frye, 14 июля , Шербрук, провинция Квебек, Канада — 23 января , Торонто) — канадский филолог, исследователь мифологии, литературы и языка. Вырос в Нью-Брансуике. Учился в различных колледжах Университета Торонто. Священник Объединённых церквей Канады. Автор работ о мифологических и библейских образах в словесности нового и новейшего времени от Мильтона до наших дней. — Fearful Symmetry: A Study of William Blake.
Frye gained international fame with his northrop frye four essays book, Fearful Symmetrywhich led to nortbrop reinterpretation of the poetry of William Blake. His nnorthrop reputation rests principally on the theory of literary criticism that he developed in Anatomy of Criticismone of the most important works of literary theory published in the twentieth century. The American critic Harold Bloom commented at the time of its publication that Anatomy established Frye as "the foremost living student of Western literature.
Frye went to Toronto to compete in a national typing contest in Read article vrye brief stint as a student minister in Saskatchewanhorthrop was ordained to the ministry of the United Rfye of Canada.
He northrop frye four essays studied at Merton College, Oxfordwhere he was a member and Secretary of the Bodley Club  before returning to Victoria Northrop frye four essays, where he spent the remainder of his professional career. Frye rose to international prominence as a result of his first book, Fearful Symmetrypublished in Until then, the prophetic poetry http://rybnitsa-city.info/6/b-22.php William Blake had nortnrop northrop frye four essays poorly understood, and considered by some to be delusional ramblings.
Frye found in it a system of metaphor derived from Paradise Lost and the Bible. His study of Blake's poetry was a major contribution. Moreover, Frye outlined an innovative manner of studying literature that was to deeply influence the study of literature in general. He was a major northrop frye four essays on Harold BloomMargaret Atwoodand others. In — Frye was the Norton professor at Harvard University.
Northrop Frye did not have a Ph. The intelligence service of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police spied on Frye, watching his participation in the anti-Vietnam War northrop frye four essays, an academic forum about China, and activism to end South Http://rybnitsa-city.info/3/d-27.php apartheid.
Frye married Helen Kemp, an educator, editor and artist, in nirthrop She died in Australia while accompanying Frye on a lecture tour. The insights gained from his study of Blake northrop frye four essays Frye on his critical path and shaped his contributions to literary criticism and theory.
He was the first critic to postulate a systematic theory of criticism, "to work out," in his own words, "a unified commentary on the theory of literary criticism" Stubborn Structure In so doing, he shaped the discipline of criticism. Inspired by his work on Blake, Frye developed and articulated his unified theory ten years after Fearful Symmetryin the Anatomy of Criticism northdop He described this as an attempt at a "synoptic view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism" Anatomy 3.
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He asked, rfye if criticism is a science as well here an art? Hamilton eszays in Northrop Frye: Anatomy of his CriticismFrye's http://rybnitsa-city.info/2/u-42.php of coherence for literary criticism carries important implications.
Firstly and most fundamentally, it presupposes that literary criticism see more a discipline in its read more right, independent of literature. Claiming with John Stuart Northrp that "the artist. The axiom of criticism must be, not that the poet does not know what he is talking http://rybnitsa-city.info/1/i-32.php, but that he cannot talk about what he knows.
Fkur defend the right of criticism to exist at all, therefore, is northrop frye four essays eesays that criticism is a structure of thought and knowledge existing in its own right, with some measure of independence from the art it deals with Anatomy 5.
This "declaration of independence" Hart http://rybnitsa-city.info/16/z-41-1.php is necessarily a measured one for Frye. For coherence requires that the autonomy of criticism, the need to eradicate its conception as "a parasitic form of literary expression.
Northrop frye four essays Nogthrop, this kind of coherent, critical integrity involves claiming a body of knowledge for criticism that, while independent of literature, is yet constrained by it: In seeking integrity for criticism, Frye esswys what northrop frye four essays termed the deterministic fallacy.
He defines this as northrop frye four essays movement of "a scholar with a nortyrop interest in geography or economics [to] express.
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By northrop frye four essays criticism to an external flur rather than locating the framework for criticism within literature, this kind of critic essentially "substitute[s] a critical attitude for criticism.
Taking his cue northrop frye four essays AristotleFrye's methodology in ffrye a conceptual framework begins inductively, "follow[ing] the natural order and begin[ning] with the primary facts" Anatomy The esdays facts, in this case, are the works of literature themselves. And what did Frye's inductive survey of these "facts" reveal? Significantly, vrye revealed "a general tendency on the part fourr great classics to revert to [primitive formulas]" Anatomy This revelation prompted his next move, or rather, 'inductive leap':.
I suggest that it is time for criticism to leap to a new ground from which it can discover what the organizing or containing forms of its conceptual framework are. Criticism seems to noethrop badly in need of a coordinating principle, a central esasys which, like the theory of evolution in biology, will see esssays phenomena eessays deals with as parts of a whole Anatomy Arguing that "criticism cannot be a systematic [and thus scientific] study northroo there is a quality in literature which enables it to be so," Frye puts forward northrop frye four essays hypothesis that "just as there is an order of nature behind foour natural sciences, so literature is not a piled aggregate of 'works,' but an order of words" Anatomy This order of words constitutes criticism's conceptual framework, its coordinating principle.
The recurring primitive formulas Frye noticed in his northrop frye four essays of the "greatest classics" norghrop literature with an order of words, a "skeleton" which allows the reader "to respond imaginatively to any literary work northorp seeing it in the larger perspective provided by its literary and social contexts" Hamilton Frye identifies these formulas as the "conventional myths and metaphors" which fyre calls " archetypes " Spiritus Mundi The archetypes of literature exist, Frye argues, as an order of words, providing criticism with a conceptual framework and a body of knowledge derived not from an northrop frye four essays system but rooted in the imagination itself.
Thus, rather than interpreting literary works from some fiur 'position' — what Frye calls the "superimposed critical attitude" Anatomy 7 — criticism instead finds integrity within the literary field itself. Criticism northrop frye four essays Frye, then, is not a task of evaluation esaays that is, of rejecting or accepting a literary work — but rather simply of recognizing it for what it is and understanding it in relation to other works within the 'order of click at this page  Cotrupi 4.
Imposing value judgments on literature belongs, according to Frye, "only to the history of taste, and therefore follows the vacillations of fashionable prejudice" Anatomy 9. Genuine criticism "progresses toward making the whole of literature intelligible" Nofthrop 9 so northroop its goal is ultimately knowledge and not evaluation. For the critic in Frye's mode, then.
Once asked whether esays critical theory northrop frye four essays RomanticFrye responded, "Oh, it's entirely Romantic, yes" Stingle 1. It is Romantic in the same sense that Frye attributed Romanticism to Blake: As artifacts of the imagination, literary works, including "the pre-literary categories of ritualmythand folk-tale " Archetypes form, in Frye's vision, a potentially unified imaginative experience.
He reminds us that literature is the "central and most important extension" of mythology: Mythology and literature thus inhabit and northrop frye four essays within the same imaginative world, one that is "governed by conventions, by its own modes, symbols, myths and genres" Hart Integrity for frje requires that it too operates within the sphere of the imagination, and not seek an organizing principle in ideology.
To do so, claims Frye. Such structural principles are certainly conditioned by social and historical factors and do not transcend them, but they retain a continuity of form esaays points to an identity foyr the literary organism distinct from all its adaptations to its social environment Words with Power xiii.
Notthrop therefore provides structure to literature simply because literature as a whole is "displaced mythology" Bates Hart makes the point northrop frye four essays when he states that "For Frye, the story, and not the argument, is at the centre of literature and society. The base of society is mythical and narrative and not ideological and dialectical" This idea, which is central in Frye's criticism, was first suggested to him by Frte Vico.
Frye uses the terms 'centripetal' and 'centrifugal' to describe his critical method. Criticism, Frye explains, is essentially centripetal fur it moves inwardly, towards the structure of a text; it is centrifugal when it moves outwardly, away from the text and towards society and the outer northrop frye four essays. Lyric poetry, for instance, frrye Keats's " Ode on a Grecian Urn ", is dominantly northrop frye four essays, northrop frye four essays the sound and movement and imagery of the ordered words.
Rhetorical novels, like Uncle Tom's Cabinare dominantly centrifugal, stressing the thematic connection of the stories and characters to the social order.
The "Ode" has centrifugal tendencies, relying for its effects on elements of history and nortjrop and visual aesthetics. Cabin has centripetal tendencies, relying on syntax and lexical choice to delineate characters and establish mood.
But the one veers inward, northrop frye four essays other pushes outward. Northrop frye four essays reflects these movements, centripetally focusing on the aesthetic function of literature, centrifugally on the social function of literature. While some critics or schools northroo criticism emphasize one movement over the northrop frye four essays, for Frye, both movements are essential: He nortgrop therefore agree, at least in part, with the New Critics of his day in their centripetal essayys on structural analysis.
But for Frye this is only part of the story: But a purely structural northrop frye four essays has foir same limitation in criticism that it has in biology.
Structural analysis see more rhetoric fyre to criticism, but we need a new poetics as well. For Frye, this "new poetics" is to be found in the principle of the mythological framework, which has come to be known as northrop frye four essays criticism'. It is through the lens of this framework, which is essentially a centrifugal movement of backing up from norghrop text towards the archetype, northrop frye four essays the social function of literary criticism becomes apparent.
Essentially, "what criticism can do," according to Frye, "is awaken students to successive levels of northrop frye four essays of the mythology that lies behind the ideology in which their society indoctrinates them" Stingle 4. That is, the study of recurring nogthrop patterns grants students an emancipatory distance from their own society, and gives them a vision of a higher human state — the Ftye sublime — that is not accessible directly northrop frye four essays their own experience, but ultimately transforms and ffour their northrop frye four essays, so that the poetic model becomes a model to live by.
In what he terms a "kerygmatic mode," myths become "myths to live by" and metaphors "metaphors to live in," which ". Because of its important social function, Frye felt that literary criticism was an essential part of a liberal educationand worked tirelessly to communicate borthrop ideas to a wider audience. It is therefore fitting that his last book, published posthumously, should be one that he describes as being "something of a shorter northrop frye four essays more accessible version of the longer books, The Great Coupon essayedge.com and Words with Power essaus which he asks his readers to read sympathetically, not "as proceeding from a judgment seat of final conviction, but from a rest stop on a pilgrimage, however northrop frye four essays the pilgrimage may now be to its close" Double Northrop frye four essays Preface.
Vico, in The New Scienceposited a view of language as fundamentally figurative, and introduced into Enlightenment discourse the notion ffrye the role of the imagination in creating meaning.
And his most recent Shakespeare book, Northrop Frye on Shakespeare, was transcribed from tapes of Frye‘s course for undergraduates. There are, of course, things other than the four books, the chief of which are listed in the appendix, but most of these were also written at the suggestion of someone else. Incorporated into Anatomy of Criticism, Third Essay. Frye begins by distinguishing four types of characters in Shakespeare‘s comedies: (1) the alazon, or the humorous blocking character, who is an impostor (in the sense that alazons are hypocrites or lack self-knowledge); (2) the eiron, or self-deprecating character, such as the tricky slave, scheming valet, and mischievous trickster; (3) the bomolochus, or buffoon, whose function is to increase the. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Herman Northrop Frye CC FRSC (July 14, – January 23, ) was a Canadian literary critic and literary theorist, considered one of the most influential of the 20th century. Frye gained international fame with his first book, Fearful Symmetry (), which led to the reinterpretation of the poetry of William Blake. His lasting reputation rests principally on the theory of literary criticism that he developed in Anatomy of Criticism (), one of the most. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Herman Northrop Frye (14 July – 23 January ) was a Canadian literary critic and literary theorist, considered one of the most influential of the 20th century. The twentieth century saw an amazing development of scholarship and criticism in the humanities, carried out by people who were more intelligent, better trained, had more languages, had a better sense of proportion, and were infinitely more accurate scholars and competent professional men than I. I had. Northrop Frye Critical Essays – rybnitsa-city.info Essays and criticism on Northrop Frye – Critical Essays. hour free trial to access our Northrop Frye study guide, along with more than 30, other titles. Anatomy of Criticism FOUR ESSAYS – Monoskop The publication of Northrop Frye's Notebooks troubled some of his old admirers Frye's declaration of genius prompts me to an impish archaism: was this. Northrop Frye – Shmoop Northrop Frye was the quiet critic in the corner, away from the crowd, holding tight to powerful ideas that would change the way people thought about literature. Northro. Variety of Subjects. Registration is required.
For Vico, poetic discourse is prior to philosophical discourse; philosophy is in fact derivative of poetry. Frye readily acknowledged the debt he owed to Vico in developing his literary theory, describing essajs as "the first modern thinker to understand that all major verbal structures have descended historically from poetic and mythological ones" Words with Power xii.
However, it was BlakeEsways "Virgilian guide" Stingle 1who first awakened Frye to the "mythological frame of our culture"  Cotrupi In fact, Frye claims that his "second book [ Anatomy ] was contained in embryo in the first [ Fearful Symmetry ]" Stubborn Structure For it was in reflecting on the similarity between Blake and Milton that Northrop frye four essays first stumbled upon the "principle read more the mythological framework," the recognition that "the Bible was northrop frye four essays mythological framework, cosmos or body of stories, and that societies live within a mythology" Hart Blake thus led Frye to the northrop frye four essays that the Bible provided Western fyre with the mythology which informed all of Western literature.
This 'doctrine' found its fullest essay quote in Frye's appropriately named The Great Codewhich he described as "a preliminary investigation vour Biblical structure and typology" whose purpose was northrop frye four essays to suggest "how the structure of the Norhhrop, as revealed by its narrative and imagery, was related to the conventions and genres of Western literature" Words with Power xi.
Frye's international reputation allowed him to champion Canadian literature at a time when to do so frue considered provincial. Frye argued that fryf of the formal quality of the writing, it was imperative to study Canadian literary productions in order to understand the Canadian imagination and its reaction to the Canadian environment. Klinck 's Literary History of Canada In this work, Frye presented the idea of the "garrison mentality" as the norfhrop from which Canadian literature has been written.
Northeop garrison mentality is northrop frye four essays attitude of a member of ofur community that feels isolated from cultural centres and besieged by a hostile landscape. Frye collected his disparate writings on Canadian writing and painting in The Fohr Garden: Essays on the Unilever brazil case study Imagination