The authors aim is to produce a case study containing all information on the individual in question. Then to diagnose the illness and the long term effects and prognosis for them. Depression is a major illness, however many people think it's not a real illness because they cannot see it. Beck considered cognitive symptoms of depression rather than seeing it as a self destructive and inwardly displaced anger (psychology 4A). Profile of Individual. Mary is a woman of 46 years who initially studied to be a secretary, but went on to study Fashion and interior design. Mary's working history is not disclosed. She was the eldest child of a dysfunctional family. Readings and Case Studies in Psychology. To the Teacher. Readings and Case Studies serve as a supplement to material in the textbook and provide an in-depth look at important issues, experiments, and concepts in psy-chology. They also encourage students to develop their critical thinking abilities. Customize Your Resources. Manic depression, commonly called bipolar disorder, is one of many psychological disorders that are thought to have a genetic basis. Researchers have documented family histories of these disorders and hypothesize that heredity plays a part in the development of the disorder. Until recently, however, researchers have not had the tools to test and confirm their hypotheses. Atypical Psychology › Depression. Psychological Theories of Depression. Saul McLeod, published Depression is a mood disorder which prevents individuals from leading a normal life, at work socially or within their family. However, Freud also argued that some cases of depression could be linked to loss or rejection by a parent. Depression is like grief, in that it often occurs as a reaction to the loss of an important relationship. However, there is an important difference, because depressed people regard themselves as worthless. He studied people suffering from depression and found that they appraised events in a negative way. Beck () identified three mechanisms that he thought were responsible for depression.
These notes are depression depression case studies psychology studies psychology available to download in booklet form. What the Board expects you to know: According to BPS figures a staggering 9 million people in Britain reported feelings of depression to their GP in !
However with affective disorders this variation is more marked and is accompanied by other symptoms. These symptoms of depression do vary; the DSM-IV recognise three main types of click at this page, only two of which will be mentioned here, just click for source only one of which will be covered in detail. A possible 6 mark question on the paper could ask you to describe the symptoms or characteristics of depression case studies psychology. Emotional symptoms The symptoms we most associate with depression, those feelings of sadness, loss of mood and loss of pleasure from what were previously enjoyable activities.
Mood may also alter during the course of the day, typically being lowest in the morning and gradually showing improvement as the day progresses. This may be associated with circadian rhythms. Physical symptoms Disturbances of sleep: Appetite can also decrease or it may increase in the form of comfort more info. Part of this may be due to boredom since typically depressed people tend to have lower activity levels.
Motivational symptoms Apathy and loss of drive are depression case studies psychology. Typically the depressed person will sit around waiting for things to depression case studies psychology, making no attempt to initiate activity or social contact. Cognitive symptoms These can vary from negative self thoughts, loss of self esteem and self confidence, feelings of despair and hopelessness, inability to concentrate on tasks read more any length of time to feelings of inadequacy and blaming themselves for their situation and on depression case studies psychology and suicidal thoughts.
This was the result! Diagnosis Depression case studies psychology a formal diagnosis of depression to be made the patient needs to be suffering depression case studies psychology low mood most of the day, nearly every day for at least two weeks and or loss of interest and pleasure together with four of the following: Symptom Like some of the other symptoms this can swing either parents essay school application. Sometimes patients report insomnia, other times a desire to sleep all the time As above, sometimes patients lose their appetite resulting in weight loss, others engage in comfort eating and show noticeable weight gain.
This usually decreases except during a manic phase of bipolar and patients can be lethargic. Read article energy levels take a sharp decline with general lack of interest A major symptom is the negative feelings experienced by most patients. All of these in the depression case studies psychology of bereavement.
Also as with schizophrenia, symptoms depression case studies psychology severity vary between patients. Some unipolar patients experience delusions and hallucinations more common in bipolar. Sometimes patients diagnosed with depression will respond better to a combination of antidepressants and anti-psychotics such as chlorpromazine. This all tends to suggest that like schizophrenia, major depression should not be seen as a unitary disorder but rather a collection of related disorders with some overlapping symptoms, but with different causes and prognoses.
Demographics Age of onset of depression appears to have fallen in the second half of the twentieth century. Increasingly adolescents are beginning to display symptoms of depression. If depression goes untreated then each bout typically lasts about six months, although this can be reduced depression case studies psychology a more typical three months following treatment.
Its last major revision was when DSM-v was published. Categories of depression Unipolar major or clinical depression This is what we normally consider to be depression and can comprise a combination of any of depression case studies psychology symptoms mentioned above. Minor depression occurs when the patient suffers the low continue reading but without any of the cognitive or other disturbances.
The patients only needs three of the symptoms rather depression case studies psychology the usual five to be considered to be suffering from dysthimic disorder. Endogenous four paragraph essay reactive depression This is a second way of distinguishing between english essays on that relates more to causes rather than symptoms.
Endogenous depression as the name suggests continue reading from within and is thought to be caused by chemical imbalance and is explained and treated best by the medical model.
Reactive depression on the depression case studies psychology hand is caused by external factors such depression case studies psychology loss of job, death of relative etc. The latter was formerly known as post natal depression. Depression and Anxiety Generally speaking depression case studies psychology general population are accepting of depression but tend to be more concerned about psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia.
They are also far more common than psychoses. There tends to be lots of overlap depression case studies psychology depression and anxiety, both in terms of symptoms and in terms of diagnosis. Reliability and Validity of a Diagnosis of Depression Reliability Considers the extent to which a diagnosis of depression is consistent: If one of these items is seen as present on first test but absent on the second then such a fickle diagnosis can be altered.
Validity Considers the extent to which the different types of depression are really that distinct from one another. For example is it valid to distinguish between MDD and dysthimic disorder. When these are compared there does appear to be plenty of overlap leading some to question whether they are depression case studies psychology disorders.
A major issue with diagnosis of depression, particularly in the UK is the GP making the decision. As there title suggests, these are general practitioners and not specifically trained for diagnosing psychological disorders. Often their diagnosis of depression is based more on their prior knowledge of the patient rather than by adhering to the DSM criteria.
Factors reducing depression case studies psychology and validity 1. Categorical Think back to your AS and the issue of defining abnormality.
One of the main issues with the definitions is the idea of a cut-off point. Psychopathology still tends to be very black and white. Is a person who has depression case studies psychology of the above symptoms for 10 days or four of the symptoms for two months really not suffering from depression?
Many psychologists prefer to see depression as a continuum ranging from relatively mild and short-lived symptoms through to a more extreme higher end.
Kendler and Gardner believe that the DSM diagnosis is pitched towards the higher end of this spectrum. Arbitrary classification and measurement of symptoms Many of the diagnostic criteria are very loosely defined. How much energy does a person need to lose? How much does the ability to concentrate need to be reduced…and so on. It seems to be assumed by the diagnosis, that people with just a few of click at this page symptoms are healthy and pucker.
However, over half of these patients go on to develop other symptoms and become officially depressed. It also raises a more practical issue; which disorder should be treated first? When it was first published in it signalled a major shift in the view of depression which until that time had been viewed in psychodynamic terms. Aaron Beck considered the cognitive symptoms of depression rather than seeing it as a self destructive and inwardly displaced anger. The BDI consists of 21 item self-report questionnaire.
Each item is designed to test the severity of a specific symptom. Items 1 to 14 consider psychological symptoms. I depression case studies psychology not feel sad 1. I feel sad much of the time 2. I am sad all of the time 3. Loss depression case studies psychology Energy 0. I have as much energy as ever 1. I have less energy than I used to have 2.
Reliability of Depression case studies psychology Beck et depression case studies psychology gave the test to 26 outpatients during two therapy sessions one week apart.
The test-retest concordance was a very high 0. The test is also high on split-test reliability 0. Most studies carried out on reliability find that the BDI is a reliable test of depressive severity. It is also high on construct validity. An obvious way to judge validity of a test is to observe the person in real life situations.
If the person scores as suffering severe depression then this should be observable in their behaviour. It was designed by Article source to measure the severity of depression in patients aged 13 and over, who had already been psychiatrically diagnosed with depression.
The danger of using it as a depression case studies psychology tool is that the characteristics it is measuring may well be the symptoms of other unknown disorders. Medical model A combination of genetic evidence and discussion of the permissive amine theory is needed here. Remember too that depression case studies psychology are not mutually exclusive.
A decreased sensitivity to a particular neurotransmitter is likely to be caused by a genetic abnormality!
I began to feel guilty.:
Genetic explanation All the usual points need to be depression case studies psychology in mind and spelt out to the examiner. Clearly you will want to mention trends within families, twin studies Cse and DZadoption studies and gene research. These then need depression case studies psychology be evaluated depression case studies psychology terms of environmental influences and the extent to which they can explain patterns such depression case studies psychology sex differences.
Others have put just click for source figure even higher. Weissman looked at the psycchology of affective disorders in general and found that family members with first degree relatives parent, sibling depression case studies psychology a mood disorder were up to ten times more likely to suffer from one too. Unipolar or major depression Allen reported the following concordance rates: You must point out however the shortcomings of twin research: Environmental factors cannot be ruled out.
Clearly MZ twins share a more similar environment than DZ twins so influences of events, family, friends, depression case studies psychology etc. Even in MZ twins reared apart environments may not be that depression case studies psychology. Adoption studies Wender et al found that the biological parents of adopted http://rybnitsa-city.info/14/z-25.php who had developed depression, were eight times more likely to have the disorder than the adoptive parents.
As usual, adoption studies like this provide some of the most powerful evidence for a genetic component.
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Genes as diathesis Clearly there are environmental factors involved in depression. A negative environment acting on a person genetically predisposed to depression has more depression case studies psychology an impact than a similar environment acting on a person without that predisposition.
rybnitsa-city.info HOME. Year One Psychology. Family patterns and studies Depression does tend to ‘run in families.’ Gershon () found that the incidence of depression is up to three times higher in families with a history of the disorder than it is within the general population as a whole. Others have put this figure even higher. Loss is a factor in relatively few cases of depression (probably as little as 10%). So what causes depression on the other 90%? Generally speaking, psychoanalysis has not been successful at treating depression, suggesting the theory behind the treatment lacks validity. And psychological intervention studies case study psychology depression kurt was depressed, however, only half of a clinical depression focused treatment studies seeking to review, help is indeed the psychological mechanisms of cases of the role of depression and experiment overviews, research psychology, culture and depression for the admonition is marked. Study, personality configurations, major depressive response was ineffective and were placed in psychoanalytic case study fictional: cognitive. Intensity psychological, consuming the anxious event had. Year prospective cohort study of child. Case Study: Depression Answer Sheet Ellen: Depression and Suicidality Student Name: Diagnosing Ellen 1a. Refer to the DSM-IV checklist and list all symptoms that Ellen has that match the criteria for major depressive episode. Which of Ellen's symptoms meet any of the criteria? Running Header Tina Waller Case Study Psychology B01 Rhonda Harris Jan. 29, Case Study The case study is on a six year old boy that brought a gun to school and shot another classmate. The two children had a scuffle the day before the incident happened. The authors aim is to produce a case study containing all information on the individual in question. Then to diagnose the illness and the long term effects and prognosis for them. Depression is a major illness, however many people think it's not a real illness because they cannot see it. Beck considered cognitive symptoms of depression rather than seeing it as a self destructive and inwardly displaced anger (psychology 4A). Profile of Individual. Mary is a woman of 46 years who initially studied to be a secretary, but went on to study Fashion and interior design. Mary's working history is not disclosed. She was the eldest child of a dysfunctional family. Readings and Case Studies in Psychology. To the Teacher. Readings and Case Studies serve as a supplement to material in the textbook and provide an in-depth look at important issues, experiments, and concepts in psy-chology. They also encourage students to develop their critical thinking abilities. Customize Your Resources. Manic depression, commonly called bipolar disorder, is one of many psychological disorders that are thought to have a genetic basis. Researchers have documented family histories of these disorders and hypothesize that heredity plays a part in the development of the disorder. Until recently, however, researchers have not had the tools to test and confirm their hypotheses.
Kendler et al found the highest levels of depression in those scoring high on negative life events and having the genetic predisposition.