Learning strategies Essay. Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 8 October Learning strategies. Learning or instructional strategies determine the approach for achieving the learning objectives and are included in the pre-instructional activities, information presentation, learner activities, testing, and follow-through. The strategies are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles (Ekwensi, Moranski, &Townsend-Sweet, ). Explicit teaching involves directing student attention toward specific learning in a highly structured environment. It is teaching that is focused on producing specific learning outcomes. Topics and contents are broken down into small parts and taught individually. Strategies for Effective Teaching and Learning Essay. Sound and Sight: The Use of Song to Promote Language Learning Trina Timoti//18th July Reference Margaret Trinick, R. (). Sound and Sight: The Use of Song to Promote Language Learning. Essay on Teaching Strategies Affects Students Learning. PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Teaching strategies are the methods you use to allow learners to access the information you are teaching. For example, you could read the information to them; you could display it pictorially; you could allow them to research the information themselves; you could present it as a Powerpoint Presentation. Teaching Styles and Learning Strategies. Teacher Talk. A large part of the course is via teacher talk, this allows for large chunks of information to be covered in a much shorter space of time. Cite This Essay. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below.
In alone, at least three essay on teaching and learning strategies on this subject appeared 9; 26; Interest in learning strategies is due in large part to increased attention to the learner and to learner-centered instructional models of teaching 2; These essay on teaching and learning strategies can be traced to the recognition that learning begins with the learner.
Essay on teaching and learning strategies present study investigated the key types of foreign language learning strategies used by university students and adds statistical support to information-processing and socialinteraction models of learning.
By approaching the learning process from cognitive, social and affective perspectives among othersresearchers are able to analyze learning in naturalistic and classroom environments. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails. More Essay Examples on Linguistics Rubric. Cognitively, learners are viewed as contributors to the process of understanding new information via prior knowledge, schemata, or scripts.
The social side of learning is also recognized as a learning catalyst in and out of the classroom 44; Authentic communication is advocated as an avenue, not simply an outcome of language instruction. The affective side of learning is frequently addressed in studies on anxiety 19; 34 and in strategy manuals addressed to students 4; Strategic competence fosters competence in grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic areas.
Thus strategy research permeates all areas of learning, recognizing that learning is multidimensional. The present study confirms this multidimensionality through the statistical approach of factor analysis. In academic settings, learning strategies are technically defined as steps taken by learners to facilitate acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information Essay on teaching and essay on teaching and learning strategies strategies of a foreign or second language must understand the types of language learning strategies learners employ both inside and outside the classroom; information-processing theory can be a significant help in this regard.
The literature on the social psychology of language learning is our best resource for information on beliefs and motivation in the development 12 of foreign or second language competence see, e. Thus informationprocessing and social psychological approaches were chosen as theoretical frameworks through which to interpret the present study. These elements represent half of a major study of language learning strategies involving over university students. Such external conditions include type, rate, and quality of instruction, the appropriateness of materials to a given learning task, and the opportunity to practice-all critical factors that influence success in classroom-based learning 7.
These variables, if favorable, are important in helping students to convert new information into continue reading, retrievable language knowledge and communicative skills. Yet the traditional concentration on these external forces has often taken attention away from the central role of the learner in the learning process. The interplay of situational variables and learner variables underscores the complexity of language learning.
In order to process language information and make it more retrievable, learners must know how to access and use learning strategies, which include any steps taken by learners to make information intake and use more productive. Learning strategies can help students transform comprehensible input what the essay on teaching and learning strategies provides into comprehensible intake what the student actually takes in and stores in a manner that allows for retrieval of the learned information in future situations.
The strategies learners choose and apply to foreign or second language learning depends on the interaction of situational variables with a host of learner variables, such as age, sex, years essay on teaching and learning strategies language foundations essays in philosophy logic mathematics and economics, ethnicity, national origin, and general learning style.
These learner variables have been discussed elsewhere see 3; 24; 25; 27; 28; 32; 33; The cognitive and social sides of learning are broad perspectives addressed here through two theoretical models. From an informationprocessing perspective, strategies used by learners are of two broad types: As key aspects of the learning process, regardless of the setting, McLaughlin, Rossman and McLeod have identified the need for attentionenhancing and organizing strategies-which fall into sorry, resistance of a wire gcse essay on teaching and learning strategies coursework you metacognitive category-and cite restrictions on short-term memory that make both cognitive and metacognitive strategies essential From a social psychology perspective, motivation emerges as a click determinant of frequency and type of strategy use Several decades of research in click to see more has found motivation to be one of the most important affective variables in language learning essay on teaching and learning strategies Here beliefs have been linked to motivation 18; 32general learning style 1Iand academic demands 3; Language learners who believe teachers to be the authoritative source of knowledge are more prone to avoid the selfdirected strategies necessary to achieve language source Reliance on a restricted range of traditional strategies is more likely to be found in classroom settings than in natural acquisition environments.
The academic setting promotes an often voiced belief on the part of grade-oriented students that social interactive strategies, which are useful in developing communicative competence, do not sufficiently help students to master the type of material on which they are tested and on which their grades depend The narrow view that fluency in a new language can be attained in two years of non-intensive coursework is likely to lead learners to become discouraged Moreover, many students believe that they lack the aptitude nsf grfp experience essay language learning, leading many to drop out of language study altogether, whereas more info greater awareness of learning strategies could compensate for this perceived deficit.
Another important learner variable that often hinders use of appropriate strategies is lack of strategy-related awareness. Typically, second and foreign language students are not fully aware of their own language learning strategies, and are even less aware of the wide range of alternative learning strategies used by highly successful language learners 24; 25; Such awareness can be gained through strategy instruction.
The greater the strategy awareness of learners, the more likely they will be to use task-appropriate learning strategies that help them overcome their general learning style limitations, and the more likely that these strategies will assist in processing, retrieving, and using new language information. Of the sixty-two foreign language classes at the university, fifty-five eighty-nine percent were surveyed, with an average of twenty-three students per class.
The majority of participants seventy percent were taking a foreign language to fulfill a requirement, and two-thirds sixty-six percent had never previously studied a foreign language. Only a small percentage four percent had chosen foreign language as a major. Http://rybnitsa-city.info/3/e-87.php seventy-two percent reported only low or moderate motivation to study a foreign language. Almost all were undergraduates, native speakers of English, and from seventeen to twenty-three years of age.
Three-quarters were either first or second semester language essaay, while the rest were third or fourth semester language students or enrolled in advanced composition, literature, or conversation classes. A few language learning strategies are overt and observable e.
Therefore, self-reports such as surveys, diaries, interviews, and thinkaloud protocols 23; 28 are often employed to measure more accurately the use of the unobservable strategies.
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The primary instrument used in the current study is a self-report survey, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning SILLa item, Likert-scaled measure 29 designed to assess the frequency with which respondents use a variety of strategies for foreign or second language edsay.
Several research questions are addressed in the present report. The more important of these are: Ancillary research sgrategies are: The students were enrolled in one of five different languages: French students, or forty percent of the sampleSpanish students, twenty percentGerman students, twenty-seven percentRussian twenty-three students, two percentand Italian twenty students, two percent.
Construct validity is based on strong relationships between SILL factors and language proficiency, language motivation, linguistic training, and other variables 11; Social desirability response essqy, which might have represented an teeaching variable, teachimg checked both qualitatively and quantitatively in several studies, including the present one see also 29; 32 ; students did not show evidence of answering in learninb socially desirable fashion to please the investigators.
Another instrument used in this investigation was a background questionnaire, which includes items on motivation, language use, previous language learning, university essay on teaching and learning strategies, and self-ratings of language anr. Teachers and teaching assistants were asked to contribute regular class time to administer the survey. Every effort was made to treat the survey as a normal classroom activity. Teachers and teaching assistants announced that the survey would serve a dual function: Factor analysis is a technique that statistically links related elements in this case, this web page strategy items that vary in synchrony with each other, thereby forming a cluster learninh items bound together by one common underlying factor.
Essay on teaching and learning strategies such underlying factors were link in this study, the first of which explains the largest amount of covariation, the second the next largest amount, and so on.
By essay on teaching and learning strategies numerical values, factor analysis provides new information helpful in formulating psychological and educational constructs in a relatively objective manner. The frequency information for each strategy item was listed according to the factor to which the strategy was ztrategies closely allied in the factor analysis. Each factor is described with essay on xnd and learning strategies to its respective strategy grouping.
Specific variables functioning in the classroom setting are strayegies as sources of strategy choice. The factor analysis resulted in five factors that strategiex particularly salient to classroom-based foreign language learning in a university setting: Factor One, formal, rule-related processing strategies; Factor Two, functional practice authentic language use strategies; Factor Three, resourceful, independent strategies; Factor Four, standard academic study strategies; and Factor Five, conversational input elicitation strategies.
The five factors are summarized in Tables I through V. Each of these tables presents essay on teaching and learning strategies number and name of the factor, the number and general content of every strategy item that loads moderately to essay on teaching and learning strategies. Factor One, formal, rule-related processing strategies, is characterized by highly link strategies.
These information-processing strategies are internal to the learner and result in few obseruable behaviors essay on teaching and learning strategies as grouping by attribute, finding L1-L2 contrasts, and looking for language patterns. Factor One involves the use of analytic, leraning skills and to a lesser strxtegies synthesizing skills, and can be viewed as comprising two modes of conscious information-processing: Strategies in this first mode include paying attention to native language interference, guessing meanings based on the native language, locating cognates, and linking the first language functioning here as background knowledge with the new information embodied in the target language code.
The second mode, intralanguage, focuses on analysis within the target language itself L2without special reference to the native language LI. Strategies associated with stgategies mode essay on teaching and learning strategies decomposing words or sets of words analyzing words, grouping by attributeanalyzing larger chunks studying text layout, monitoring writingand assimilating target language data reading essay on teaching and learning strategies information, making mental summaries, using rules.
In sum, Factor One is associated with manipulation and analysis of code-level information, involving cross-language comparisons, decomposition of target language input, and restructuring of target language data. In this sense, the factor analytic clustering of these cognitive and metacognitive visit web page etaching statistical support to the information-processing model, which posits a number of such activities see 6; No communicative interaction among students is included esway Factor One; instead, essay on teaching and learning strategies strategy modes pinpointed in this essay on teaching and learning strategies involve active hypothesis-testing, analysis, and synthesis based on tangible language codes, to the exclusion of social variables.
As Table I indicates, the strategies included in Factor One fall into the medium to high frequency range, with most of them being high. This means that respondents reported using formal rule-related processing strategies the most frequently among all the categories. Factor Two, functional practice authentic language use strategies, might be considered to be diametrically opposed to Factor One in terms of the social engagement dimension.
Factor Two subsumes strategies such as actively seeking extracurricular situations in which the target language is used to communicate e. In the classroom, Factor Two strategies include communicating with fellow learners, playing games involving the target language, and reviewing language materials with peers. Functional practice strategies are important in developing and continuing learning, as demonstrated by research 3.
Though such research strongly supports the importance of these strategies, students in the present sample rarely used them; in contrast, exceptionally low frequencies for functional learnkng strategies were reported, as indicated in Table Factor Three, resourceful, independent strategies, teafhing strategies involving manipulation of larger phrase- and sentence-level chunks of information than were prominent in Factor One where the focus was on essay on teaching and learning strategies down information into smaller units.
Factor Three strategies specifically include those that learners can use on their own, independently of a partner or class. Factor Three encompasses some of the most obviously metacognitive strategies i. These techniques allow learners to exert conscious control over learning events in a manner suited to self-perceived learning needs. Other Factor Three strategies also explicitly suggest actions based on needs: Although Factor Three involves a high degree essay on teaching and learning strategies self-direction, no attempt at social engagement exists in this factor.
These strategies are independent, resourceful activities-ones most teachers might expect students strateies use as basic study essay on teaching and learning strategies outside the classroom.
Factor Four is broadly designated as standard academic study strategies. This factor is essay on teaching and learning strategies by self-motivated effort and preparation, and by a considerable amount of time on task. Many of these are metacognitive strategies which reflect conscious time management and the focusing of energy and attention during learning. Factor Five, conversational input reaching strategies, is evidenced in the use of active, learner-initiated communicative strategies learnong gain additional information.
Автор: Milkis Dokora